El papel de las pruebas diagnósticas en el manejo de la pandemia COVID-19: un enfoque desde el laboratorio clínico.

Carmen J. Mazariegos-Herrera, Carmen M. Ozaeta-Gordillo, Rebeca A. Menéndez-Veras, César R. Conde-Pereira

Resumen


A finales del año 2019 una crisis sanitaria se desató a nivel mundial debido a la propagación del nuevo virus SARS-CoV-2 causante de la enfermedad COVID-19. En pocos meses el virus llegó a más de 120 países, causando cerca de 19.5 millones de casos y 725,000 muertes alrededor del mundo. La sintomatología de la enfermedad incluye fiebre, tos, cefalea, dolor de garganta, dificultad respiratoria, fatiga y mialgia. El espectro de la enfermedad puede ir desde los pacientes asintomáticos o leves (la gran mayoría de los casos) hasta aquellos que evolucionan a condiciones que amenazan al vida como el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda, neumonía severa o fallo multiorgánico, principalmente en personas mayores y con comorbilidades. En Guatemala la letalidad es del 3.9%. El diagnóstico de laboratorio clínico juega un papel importante en el control de la epidemia. El diagnóstico se basa en la detección del virus en hisopados nasofaríngeos a través de técnicas moleculares de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos. Otras técnicas de laboratorio resultan importantes para conocer la dinámica de la enfermedad entre estas se incluyen pruebas para detectar antígeno del virus en secreciones respiratorias y pruebas serológicas para detectar y medir los anticuerpos generados contra el virus.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36829/63CTS.v7i3.990

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