Asociación del Grupo Sanguíneo ABO con la Susceptibilidad a COVID-19

Rafael Fernández-Botrán

Resumen


La pandemia de COVID-19, causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, ha infectado ya a más de 25 millones de personas, ocasionando más de 850,000 muertos y causando serios problemas en hospitales y sistemas de salud en todo el mundo. Una de las mayores dificultades que presenta la infección por SARS-CoV-2 es su gran variación en presentación clínica, que puede ir desde casos asintomáticos hasta síndromes de distrés respiratorio agudo, fallo múltiple de órganos y muerte. De aquí la importancia del estudio de factores demográficos, clínicos y genéticos que permitan la identificación de personas con mayor riesgo de adquirir la infección y sufrir manifestaciones graves de la enfermedad.  Un número creciente de reportes en la literatura han sugerido que el grupo sanguíneo ABO está relacionado con el riesgo a COVID-19, coincidiendo en que personas con sangre del grupo A muestran el mayor riesgo, mientras que personas con sangre del grupo O el menor.  Los objetivos de esta revisión son presentar un resumen de la evidencia existente en la literatura científica reciente y discutir estas observaciones en el contexto del conocimiento sobre la asociación de los grupos sanguíneos a varias infecciones y otras enfermedades, así como de los mecanismos potenciales involucrados. Finalmente, las implicaciones de la relación entre el grupo sanguíneo y susceptibilidad a COVID-19 son también discutidas con relación a la población guatemalteca.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36829/63CTS.v7i3.987

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