Tratamiento del paciente pediátrico con Covid-19

Mónica E. Rosales-Salán, Aida G. Barrera-Pérez, Magda F. Velásquez-Tohom

Resumen


COVID-19 afecta entre el 1.2 al 5% de niños y adolescentes en diversos países incluyendo Guatemala, la mayoría con manifestaciones clínicas leves a moderadas. La terapéutica farmacológica para enfermedad grave aún no está completamente establecida, por lo que se realizó una revisión de literatura de artículos científicos publicados en revistas indizadas para proporcionar una actualización del tratamiento de COVID-19 en niños y adolescentes, que ayude a orientar las decisiones clínicas. El tratamiento de casos leves consiste en antipiréticos, antibióticos en neumonía leve; en casos moderados, monitoreo de signos vitales, cánula binasal, manejo de líquidos, antipiréticos y analgésicos, toma de hemocultivo, inicio de antibióticos y uso de beta agonistas de acción corta o esteroides inhalados. En enfermedad grave, ventilación mecánica no invasiva o invasiva, ventilación prono temprana, soporte nutricional, hídrico y vasopresor, mantenimiento del equilibrio ácido base y de electrolitos. Se indica el uso de antibióticos y antivirales como remdesivir y el manejo inmunológico con interferón alfa, esteroides y/o inmunoglobulina. Se monitorea función hepática, renal, inmunológica, hematológica y cardíaca. No se ha encontrado evidencia de que la hidroxicloroquina, ivermectina y algunos antivirales disminuyan la mortalidad en pacientes pediátricos. Actualmente no existe ningún medicamento específico, validado científicamente para el tratamiento de COVID-19 en niños. El tratamiento para casos graves se decide a partir de las experiencias del tratamiento en adultos, por lo cual es importante continuar con investigación de fármacos específicos para la población pediátrica.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36829/63CTS.v7i3.979

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