Evidencia disponible sobre el abordaje terapéutico de pacientes con COVID-19: una revisión narrativa

Ronald E. Galdamez, Jorge L. Ranero, Dorian E. Ramírez

Resumen


La ausencia de tratamiento específico para COVID-19 demanda una revisión dinámica de la evidencia científica disponible que permita un manejo dirigido a lograr la mejoría clínica, reducción de complicaciones y una menor mortalidad. Los factores independientes de riesgo asociados a mayor mortalidad, falla ventilatoria y necesidad de ventilación mecánica incluyen edad avanzada, enfermedades crónico-degenerativas, obesidad, elevación de ferritina, LDH, ALT y AST, marcadores de incremento en la generación de trombina, datos de daño cardiaco (elevación de troponinas y NT-pro-BNP) y niveles de IL-6 elevados. En ausencia de antivirales de acción directa, el abordaje terapéutico temprano con terapia anti-IL-6, la supresión de la cascada inflamatoria y transducción de señales mediante uso de glucocorticoides, la profilaxis trombótica y anticoagulación, así como la inhibición de la trombogénesis y noxa cardiaca con el uso de colchicina, pueden ser considerados hasta el momento como medidas plausibles en el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en estado moderado y grave. Remdesivir puede considerarse para el tratamiento de pacientes con lesión pulmonar severa sin falla ventilatoria, tras evidencia sólida que ha demostrado mejoría clínica y reducción de mortalidad. En el subgrupo de pacientes graves y bajo ventilación mecánica, el uso de plasma de paciente convaleciente ha producido mejoría clínica, aunque la evidencia es limitada. La pronación en el paciente despierto y bajo ventilación mecánica puede considerarse como medida para mejorar la oxigenación con poca influencia sobre la mortalidad. Esta revisión plantea las medidas terapéuticas disponibles al momento y la estratificación de riesgo para el manejo de pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2.


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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36829/63CTS.v7i3.976

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