Interacciones entre SARS-CoV-2 y el sistema de defensas del aparato respiratorio: consideraciones para la prevención y el manejo de las infecciones

Jose R. Cruz


Se describe la situación global de las infecciones por SARS-CoV-2 y los cuadros clínicos de COVID-19. Se presentan datos epidemiológicos de Centro América y de Guatemala, para ejemplificar algunos factores de riesgo de infección y morbilidad. Se revisa la función y estructura del sistema respiratorio, sus mecanismos de defensa innata – captura y remoción de agentes extraños, reconocimiento e inactivación de agentes potencialmente nocivos, reparación del daño, y prevención de futuras incursiones por agentes identificados-, los de defensa adaptativa en las vías respiratorias, y el microbioma. Se describen los tejidos linfoides nasal, y bronquio-alveolar, y la contribución de citoquinas, células especializadas, y anticuerpos del tipo IgA secretoria a la protección antiviral, a la respuesta inflamatoria asociada a la infección, y a la reparación del daño tisular. Se discuten las interacciones de SARS-CoV-2 con los mecanismos de defensa. Se presentan consideraciones para las medidas preventivas de infecciones, incluyendo la aplicación de vacunas, y para evitar enfermedad severa.

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