Exploratory serosurvey for antibodies to avian pathogens in backyard chickens from a satellite community of Jalapa City, Guatemala
An exploratory serosurvey was conducted to determine the presence of circulating antibodies to avian pathogens in backyard chickens from Los Achiotes (LAC), a satellite community of Jalapa City, located in eastern Guatemala. Blood samples from 51 adult chickens belonging to 51 households were taken and investigated for the presence of antibodies to Avian Influenza (AI), Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bronchitis (IB), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS). Antibodies for AI, ND, were investigated by Hemagglutination Inhibition, for IB and IBD by ELISA (BioChekÂ®) and for MG and MS by a rapid serum plate agglutination test. The cut-off point for positive titers was 1:4 for AI and ND and a 0.2 S/P ratio for IB and IBD. All sampled chickens were positive for concomitant antibodies to various pathogens. Over half of the chickens were positive reactors to antibodies to all six tested pathogens; about a third carried antibodies to five and the rest to four or three. The frequencies of positive reactors were: AI = 27 (53%); ND = 49 (96.1%); IB = 50 (98%); IBD = 51 (100%); MG = 45 (88%) and MS = 48 (94%). The results show that the dynamic population of backyard chickens in LAC could be a potential threat to backyard poultry, farm poultry, wild birds and human population. The need to develop interventions and policies following the One Health approach (animal health to achieve human health) is stressed.
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